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What Are The Basics Of Exposure?

The Exposure Triangle:

Three main elements that need to be considered when playing around with exposure by calling them ‘the exposure triangle’.

Each of the three aspects of the triangle relates to light and how it enters and interacts with the camera.

The three elements are:

  1. ISO – the measure of a digital camera sensor’s sensitivity to light
  2. Aperture – the size of the opening in the lens when a picture is taken
  3. Shutter Speed – the amount of time that the shutter is open

Check This Image

Camera Exposure:

A photograph’s exposure determines how light or dark an image will appear when it’s been captured by your camera. Believe it or not, this is determined by just three camera settings: aperture, ISO and shutter speed (the “exposure triangle”). Mastering their use is an essential part of developing an intuition for photography.

Understanding Exposure:

Achieving the correct exposure is a lot like collecting rain in a bucket. While the rate of rainfall is uncontrollable, three factors remain under your control: the bucket’s width, the duration you leave it in the rain, and the quantity of rain you want to collect. You just need to ensure you don’t collect too little (“underexposed”), but that you also don’t collect too much (“overexposed”). The key is that there are many different combinations of width, time and quantity that will achieve this. For example, for the same quantity of water, you can get away with less time in the rain if you pick a bucket that’s really wide. Alternatively, for the same duration left in the rain, a really narrow bucket can be used as long as you plan on getting by with less water.

In photography, the exposure settings of aperture, shutter speed and ISO speed are analogous to the width, time and quantity discussed above. Furthermore, just as the rate of rainfall was beyond your control above, so too is natural light for a photographer.

Exposure Triangle: Aperture, ISO & Shutter Speed:

Each setting controls exposure differently:

Aperture: controls the area over which light can enter your camera

Shutter speed: controls the duration of the exposure

ISO speed: controls the sensitivity of your camera’s sensor to a given amount of light

One can, therefore, use many combinations of the above three settings to achieve the same exposure. The key, however, is knowing which trade-offs to make, since each setting also influences other image properties. For example, aperture affects depth of field, shutter speed affects motion blur and ISO speed affects image noise.

The next few sections will describe how each setting is specified, what it looks like, and how a given camera exposure mode affects their combination.

Shutter Speed:

A camera’s shutter determines when the camera sensor will be open or closed to incoming light from the camera lens. The shutter speed specifically refers to how long this light is permitted to enter the camera. “Shutter speed” and “exposure time” refer to the same concept, where a faster shutter speed means a shorter exposure time.

By the Numbers. Shutter speed’s influence on exposure is perhaps the simplest of the three camera settings: it correlates exactly 1:1 with the amount of light entering the camera. For example, when the exposure time doubles the amount of light entering the camera doubles. It’s also the setting that has the widest range of possibilities:

Typical Examples

Speciality night and low-light photos on a tripod To add a silky look to flowing water

Landscape photos on a tripod for enhanced depth of field

To add motion blur to the background of a moving subject

Carefully taken hand-held photos with stabilization

Typical hand-held photos without substantial zoom

To freeze everyday sports/action subject movement

Hand-held photos with substantial zoom (telephoto lens)

To freeze extremely fast, up-close subject motion

Shutter Speed

1 – 30+ seconds 2 – 1/2 second 1/2 to 1/30 second 1/50 – 1/100 second 1/250 – 1/500 second 1/1000 – 1/4000 second

How it Appears. Shutter speed is a powerful tool for freezing or exaggerating the appearance of motion:

With waterfalls and other creative shots, motion blur is sometimes desirable, but for most other shots this is avoided. Therefore all one usually cares about with shutter speed is whether it results in a sharp photo — either by freezing movement or because the shot can be taken hand-held without camera shake.

How do you know which shutter speed will provide a sharp hand-held shot? With digital cameras, the best way to find out is to just experiment and look at the results on your camera’s rear LCD screen (at full zoom). If a properly focused photo comes out blurred, then you’ll usually need to either increase the shutter speed, keep your hands steadier or use a camera tripod.

For more on this topic, see the tutorial on Using Camera Shutter Speed Creatively.


A camera’s aperture setting controls the area over which light can pass through your camera lens. It is specified in terms of an f-stop value, which can at times be counterintuitive because the area of the opening increases as the f-stop decreases. In photographer slang, when someone says they are “stopping down” or “opening up” their lens, they are referring to increasing and decreasing the f-stop value, respectively.

By the Numbers. Every time the f-stop value halves, the light-collecting area quadruples. There’s a formula for this, but most photographers just memorize the f-stop numbers that correspond to each doubling/halving of light:

Relative Light Example Shutter Speed

1X16 seconds

2X8 seconds

4X4 seconds

8X2 seconds

16X1 second

32X1/2 second

64X1/4 second

128X1/8 second

256X1/15 second

Aperture Setting

f/22 f/16 f/11 f/8.0 f/5.6 f/4.0 f/2.8 f/2.0 f/1.4

The above aperture and shutter speed combinations all result in the same exposure.

Note: Shutter speed values are not always possible in increments of exactly double or half another shutter speed, but they’re always close enough that the difference is negligible. The above f-stop numbers are all standard options in any camera, although most also allow finer adjustments of 1/2 or 1/3 stops, such as f/3.2 and f/6.3. The range of values may also vary from camera to camera (or lens to lens). For example, a compact camera might have an available range of f/2.8 to f/8.0, whereas a digital SLR camera might have a range of f/1.4 to f/32 with a portrait lens. A narrow aperture range usually isn’t a big problem, but a greater range does provide for more creative flexibility.

Technical Note: With many lenses, their light-gathering ability is also affected by their transmission efficiency, although this is almost always much less of a factor than aperture. It’s also beyond the photographer’s control. Differences in transmision efficiency are typically more pronounced with extreme zoom ranges. For example, Canon’s 24-105 mm f/4L IS lens gathers perhaps ~10-40% less light at f/4 than Canon’s similar 24-70 mm f/2.8L lens at f/4 (depending on the focal length). How it Appears. A camera’s aperture setting is what determines a photo’s depth of field (the range of distance over which objects appear in sharp focus). Lower f-stop values correlate with a shallower depth of field:

Wide Aperture f/2.0 – low f-stop number shallow depth of field

Narrow Aperture f/16 – high f-stop number large depth of field


The ISO speed determines how sensitive the camera is to incoming light. Similar to shutter speed, it also correlates 1:1 with how much the exposure increases or decreases. However, unlike aperture and shutter speed, a lower ISO speed is almost always desirable, since higher ISO speeds dramatically increase image noise. As a result, ISO speed is usually only increased from its minimum value if the desired aperture and shutter speed aren’t otherwise obtainable.

Common ISO speeds include 100, 200, 400 and 800, although many cameras also permit lower or higher values. With compact cameras, an ISO speed in the range of 50-200 generally produces acceptably low image noise, whereas, with digital SLR cameras, a range of 50-800 (or higher) is often acceptable.

Camera Exposure Modes:

Most digital cameras have one of the following standardized exposure modes:

Auto (green rectangle), Program (P), Aperture Priority (Av), Shutter Priority (Tv), Manual (M) and Bulb (B) mode. Av, Tv, and M are often called “creative modes” or “auto exposure (AE) modes.”

Each of these modes influences how aperture, ISO and shutter speed are chosen for a given exposure. Some modes attempt to pick all three values for you, whereas others let you specify one setting and the camera picks the other two (if possible). The following table describes how each mode pertains to exposure:

How It Works: Camera automatically selects all exposure settings. The camera automatically selects aperture & shutter speed; you can choose a corresponding ISO speed & exposure compensation. With some cameras, P can also act as a hybrid of the Av & Tv modes.

You specify the aperture & ISO; the camera’s metering determines the corresponding shutter speed.

You specify the shutter speed & ISO; the camera’s metering determines the corresponding aperture.

You specify the aperture, ISO and shutter speed — regardless of whether these values lead to the correct exposure.

Useful for exposures longer than 30 seconds. You specify the aperture and ISO; the shutter speed is determined by a remote release switch, or by the duration until you press the shutter button a second time.

Exposure Mode Auto () Program (P) Aperture Priority (Av or A) Shutter Priority (Tv or S) Manual (M) Bulb (B)

In addition, the camera may also have several pre-set modes; the most common include landscape, portrait, sports and night mode. The symbols used for each mode vary slightly from camera to camera, but will likely appear similar to those below:

How It Works: Camera tries to pick the lowest f-stop value possible for a given exposure. This ensures the shallowest possible depth of field. The camera tries to pick a high f-stop to ensure a large depth of field. Compact cameras also often set their focus distance to distant objects or infinity.

The camera tries to achieve as fast a shutter speed as possible for a given exposure — ideally 1/250 seconds or faster. In addition to using a low f-stop, the fast shutter speed is usually achieved by increasing the ISO speed more than would otherwise be acceptable in portrait mode.

The camera permits shutter speeds which are longer than ordinarily allowed for hand-held shots, and increases the ISO speed to near its maximum available value. However, for some cameras, this setting means that a flash is used for the foreground, and long shutter speed and high ISO are used to expose the background. Check your camera’s instruction manual for any unique characteristics.

Exposure Mode Portrait Landscape Sports/Action Night/Low-light

However, keep in mind that most of the above settings rely on the camera’s metering system in order to know what’s a proper exposure. For tricky subject matter, metering can often be fooled, so it’s a good idea to also be aware of when it might go awry, and what you can do to compensate for such exposure errors (see section on exposure compensation within the camera metering tutorial).

Finally, some of the above modes may also control camera settings which are unrelated to exposure, although this varies from camera to camera. Such additional settings might include the autofocus points, metering mode and autofocus modes, amongst others.

ISO Setting In Digital Photography.

What is ISO?

In traditional (film) photography ISO (or ASA) was the indication of how sensitive a film was to light. It was measured in numbers (you’ve probably seen them on films – 100, 200, 400, 800 etc). The lower the number the lower the sensitivity of the film and the finer the grain in the shots you’re taking.

In Digital Photography ISO measures the sensitivity of the image sensor. The same principles apply as in film photography – the lower the number the less sensitive your camera is to light and the finer the grain.

Higher ISO settings are generally used in darker situations to get faster shutter speeds. For example, an indoor sports event when you want to freeze the action in lower light. However the higher the ISO you choose the noisier shots you will get. I’ll illustrate this below with two enlargements of shots that I just took – the one on the left is taken at 100 ISO and the one of the right at 3200 ISO (click to enlarge to see the full effect).

100 ISO is generally accepted as ‘normal’ and will give you lovely crisp shots (little noise/grain).

Most people tend to keep their digital cameras in ‘Auto Mode’ where the camera selects the appropriate ISO setting depending upon the conditions you’re shooting in (it will try to keep it as low as possible) but most cameras also give you the opportunity to select your own ISO also.

When you do override your camera and choose a specific ISO you’ll notice that it impacts the aperture and shutter speed needed for a well-exposed shot. For example – if you bumped your ISO up from 100 to 400 you’ll notice that you can shoot at higher shutter speeds and/or smaller apertures.

Questions to Ask When Choosing ISO

When choosing the ISO setting I generally ask myself the following four questions:

  1. Light – Is the subject well lit?
  2. Grain – Do I want a grainy shot or one without noise?
  3. Tripod – Am I using a tripod?
  4. Moving Subject – Is my subject moving or stationary?

If there is plenty of light, I want little grain, I’m using a tripod and my subject is stationary I will generally use a pretty low ISO rating.

If it’s dark, I purposely want grain, I don’t have a tripod and/or my subject is moving I might consider increasing the ISO as it will enable me to shoot with faster shutter speed and still expose the shot well.

Of course, the trade-off of this increase in ISO will be noisier shots.

Situations, where you might need to push ISO to higher settings, include:

  • Indoor Sports Events – where your subject is moving fast yet you may have limited light available.
  • Concerts – also low in light and often ‘no-flash’ zones
  • Art Galleries – many galleries have rules against using a flash and of course being indoors are not well lit.
  • Birthday Parties – blowing out the candles in a dark room can give you a nice moody shot which would be ruined by a bright flash. Increasing the ISO can help capture the scene.

ISO is an important aspect of digital photography to have an understanding of if you want to gain more control of your digital camera. Experiment with different settings and how they impact your images today – particularly learn more about Aperture and Shutter Speed which with ISO are a part of the Exposure Triangle.

Shutter Speed In Digital Photography:

Previously I’ve introduced the concept of the Exposure Triangle as a way of thinking about getting out of Auto Mode and exploring the idea of manually adjusting the exposure of your shots.

The three main areas that you can adjust are ISO, Aperture and Shutter speed. I’ve previously looked at making adjustments to ISO and now want to turn our attention to shutter speed.

What is Shutter Speed?

As I’ve written elsewhere, defined most basically – shutter speed is ‘the amount of time that the shutter is open’.

In film photography it was the length of time that the film was exposed to the scene you’re photographing and similarly in digital photography shutter speed is the length of time that your image sensor ‘sees’ the scene you’re attempting to capture.

Let me attempt to break down the topic of “Shutter Speed” into some bite-sized pieces that should help digital camera owners trying to get their head around shutter speed:

  • Shutter speed is measured in seconds – or in most cases fractions of seconds. The bigger the denominator the faster the speed (ie 1/1000 is much faster than 1/30).
  • In most cases, you’ll probably be using shutter speeds of 1/60th of a second or faster. This is because anything slower than this is very difficult to use without getting camera shake. Camera shake is when your camera is moving while the shutter is open and results in a blur in your photos.
  • If you’re using a slow shutter speed (anything slower than 1/60) you will need to either use a tripod or some type of image stabilization (more and more cameras are coming with this built-in).
  • Shutter speeds available to you on your camera will usually double (approximately) with each setting. As a result, you’ll usually have the options for the following shutter speeds – 1/500, 1/250, 1/125, 1/60, 1/30, 1/15, 1/8 etc. This ‘doubling’ is handy to keep in mind as aperture settings also double the amount of light that is let in – as a result increasing shutter speed by one stop and decreasing aperture by one stop should give you similar exposure levels (but we’ll talk more about this in a future post).
  • Some cameras also give you the option for very slow shutter speeds that are not fractions of seconds but are measured in seconds (for example 1 second, 10 seconds, 30 seconds etc). These are used in very low light situations when you’re going after special effects and/or when you’re trying to capture a lot of movement in a shot. Some cameras also give you the option to shoot in ‘B’ (or ‘Bulb’) mode. Bulb mode lets you keep the shutter open for as long as you hold it down.
  • When considering what shutter speed to use in an image you should always ask yourself whether anything in your scene is moving and how you’d like to capture that movement. If there is movement in your scene you have the choice of either freezing the movement (so it looks still) or letting the moving object intentionally blur (giving it a sense of movement).
  • To freeze movement in an image (like in the surfing shot above) you’ll want to choose a faster shutter speed and to let the movement blur you’ll want to choose a slower shutter speed. The actual speeds you should choose will vary depending upon the speed of the subject in your shot and how much you want it to be blurred.
  • Motion is not always bad. I spoke to one digital camera owner last week who told me that he always used fast shutter speeds and couldn’t understand why anyone would want motion in their images. There are times when motion is good. For example when you’re taking a photo of a waterfall and want to show how fast the water is flowing, or when you’re taking a shot of a racing car and want to give it a feeling of speed, or when you’re taking a shot of a starscape and want to show how the stars move over a longer period of time. In all of these instances choosing a longer shutter speed will be the way to go. However, in all of these cases, you need to use a tripod or you’ll run the risk of ruining the shots by adding camera movement (a different type of blur than motion blur).
  • Focal Length and Shutter Speed – another thing to consider when choosing shutter speed is the focal length of the lens you’re using. Longer focal lengths will accentuate the amount of camera shake you have and so you’ll need to choose a faster shutter speed (unless you have image stabilization in your lens or camera). The ‘rule’ of thumb to use with focal length in non image stabilized situations) is to choose a shutter speed with a denominator that is larger than the focal length of the lens. For example, if you have a lens that is 50mm 1/60th is probably ok but if you have a 200mm lens you’ll probably want to shoot at around 1/250.

Shutter Speed – Bringing it Together

Remember that thinking about Shutter Speed in isolation from the other two elements of the Exposure Triangle (aperture and ISO) is not really a good idea. As you change shutter speed you’ll need to change one or both of the other elements to compensate for it.

For example, if you speed up your shutter speed one stop (for example from 1/125th to 1/250th) you’re effectively letting half as much light into your camera. To compensate for this you’ll probably need to increase your aperture one stop (for example from f16 to f11). The other alternative would be to choose a faster ISO rating (you might want to move from ISO 100 to ISO 400 for example).

Aperture In Digital Photography:

What is Aperture?

Put most simply – Aperture is ‘the size of the opening in the lens when a picture is taken.’

When you hit the shutter release button of your camera a hole opens up that allows your cameras image sensor to catch a glimpse of the scene you’re wanting to capture. The aperture that you set impacts the size of that hole. The larger the hole the more light that gets in – the smaller the hole the less light.

Aperture is measured in ‘f-stops’. You’ll often see them referred to here at Digital Photography School as f/number – for example f/2.8, f/4, f/5.6,f/8,f/22 etc. Moving from one f-stop to the next doubles or halves the size of the amount of opening in your lens (and the amount of light getting through). Keep in mind that a change in shutter speed from one stop to the next doubles or halves the amount of light that gets in also – this means if you increase one and decrease the other you let the same amount of light in – very handy to keep in mind).

One thing that causes a lot of new photographers confusion is that large apertures (where lots of light gets through) are given f/stop smaller numbers and smaller apertures (where less light gets through) have larger f-stop numbers. So f/2.8 is in fact a much larger aperture than f/22. It seems the wrong way around when you first hear it but you’ll get the hang of it.

Depth of Field and Aperture

There are a number of results of changing the aperture of your shots that you’ll want to keep in mind as you consider your setting but the most noticeable one will be the depth of field that your shot will have.

Depth of Field (DOF) is that amount of your shot that will be in focus. Large depth of field means that most of your image will be in focus whether it’s close to your camera or far away (like the picture to the left where both the foreground and background are largely in focus – taken with an aperture of f/22).

Small (or shallow) depth of field means that only part of the image will be in focus and the rest will be fuzzy (like in the flower at the top of this post (click to enlarge). You’ll see in it that the tip of the yellow stems are in focus but even though they are only 1cm or so behind them that the petals are out of focus. This is a very shallow depth of field and was taken with an aperture of f/4.5).

Aperture has a big impact upon depth of field. Large aperture (remember it’s a smaller number) will decrease depth of field while small aperture (larger numbers) will give you larger depth of field.

It can be a little confusing at first but the way I remember it is that small numbers mean small DOF and large numbers mean large DOF.

Let me illustrate this with two pictures I took earlier this week in my garden of two flowers.

The first picture below (click them to enlarge) on the left was taken with an aperture of f/22 and the second one was taken with an aperture of f/2.8. The difference is quite obvious. The f/22 picture has both the flower and the bud in focus and you’re able to make out the shape of the fence and leaves in the background.

The f/2.8 shot (2nd one) has the left flower in focus (or parts of it) but the depth of field is very shallow and the background is thrown out of focus and the bud to the right of the flower is also less in focus due to it being slightly further away from the camera when the shot was taken.

The best way to get your head around aperture is to get your camera out and do some experimenting. Go outside and find a spot where you’ve got items close to you as well as far away and take a series of shots with different aperture settings from the smallest setting to the largest. You’ll quickly see the impact that it can have and the usefulness of being able to control aperture.

Some styles of photography require large depths of field (and small Apertures)

For example in most landscape photography you’ll see small aperture settings (large numbers) selected by photographers. This ensures that from the foreground to the horizon is relatively in focus.

On the other hand in portrait photography it can be very handy to have your subject perfectly in focus but to have a nice blurry background in order to ensure that your subject is the main focal point and that other elements in the shot are not distracting. In this case you’d choose a large aperture (small number) to ensure a shallow depth of field.

Macro photographers tend to be big users of large apertures to ensure that the element of their subject that they are focusing in on totally captures the attention of the viewer of their images while the rest of the image is completely thrown out of focus.

What Is Cinematography?

Filmmaking Cinematography Cinematography (from Greek: κίνημα, kinema “movements” and γράφειν, graphein “to record”) is the science or art of motion-picture photography by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as film stock.

Typically, a lens is used to repeatedly focus the light reflected or emitted from objects into real images on the light-sensitive surface inside a camera during a timed exposure creating multiple images. With an electronic image sensor, this produces an electrical charge at each pixel, which is electronically processed and stored in a video file for subsequent display or processing. The result with photographic emulsion is series of invisible latent images on the film stock, which are later chemically “developed” into a visible image. The images on the film stock are played back at a rapid speed and projected on a screen creating the illusion of a movie. Cinematography is employed in many fields of science and business as well as its more direct uses for recreational purposes and mass communication.

Film Cinematography The experimental film, Roundhay Garden Scene, filmed by Louis Le Prince on October 14, 1888 in Roundhay, Leeds, England, is the earliest surviving motion picture. This movie was shot on paper film.

The first though to design a successful apparatus was W. K. L. Dickson, working under the direction of Thomas Alva Edison, called the Kinetograph, and patented in 1891. This camera took a series of instantaneous photographs on standard Eastman Kodak photographic emulsion coated onto a transparent celluloid strip 35 mm wide. The results of this work were first shown in public in 1893, using the viewing apparatus also designed by Dickson, and called the Kinetoscope. Contained within a large box, only one person at a time looking into it through a peephole could view the movie.

In the following year, Charles Francis Jenkins and his projector, the Phantoscope, made a successful audience viewing while Louis and Auguste Lumière perfected the Cinématographe, an apparatus that took, printed, and projected film in Paris in December 1895. Lumiere brothers were the first to present projected, moving, photographic, pictures to a paying audience of more that one person.

In 1896, Edison showed his improved Vitascope projector and it was the first commercially, successful, projector in the U.S. Cooper Hewitt invented mercury lamps which made it practical to shoot films indoors without sunlight in 1905. The first animated cartoon is produced in 1906. Credits begin to appear at the beginning of motion pictures in 1911. The Bell & Howell 2709 movie camera invented in 1915 allows directors to make close-ups without physically moving the camera. By late 1920’s most of the movies produced were sound films.

Widescreen formats first experimented in the 1950’s. By the 1970’s, most of the movies produced were colour films. In 1970’s, IMAX and other 70mm formats gained popularity. The wide distribution of films became commonplace setting the ground for so-called blockbusters. Film cinematography dominated the motion picture industry from its inception till 2010’s when digital cinematography became dominant. Film cinematography is still used by some directors especially in specific applications or out of fondness of the format.

Digital Cinematography

In digital cinematography, the movie is shot on a digital medium such as flash storage as well as distributed through a digital medium such as a hard drive. Beginning in the late 1980s, Sony began marketing the concept of “electronic cinematography,” utilizing its analogue Sony HDVS professional video cameras. The effort met with very little success. However, this led to one of the earliest digitally shot feature movies, Julia and Julia, to be produced in 1987. In 1998, with the introduction of HDCAM recorders and 1920 × 1080 pixel digital professional video cameras based on CCD technology, the idea, now re-branded as “digital cinematography,” began to gain traction in the market. Shot and released in 1998, The Last Broadcast is believed by some to be the first feature-length video shot and edited entirely on consumer-level digital equipment. In May 1999 George Lucas challenged the supremacy of the movie-making medium of film for the first time by including footage filmed with high-definition digital cameras in Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace. In late 2013, Paramount became the first major studio to distribute movies to theatres in digital format eliminating 35mm film entirely. As digital technology improved, movie studios began increasingly shifting towards digital cinematography. Since 2010’s , digital cinematography has become the dominant form of cinematography after largely superseding film cinematography.

Who Is Director OF Photography (Cinematographer).

A cinematographer or director of photography (sometimes shortened to DP or DOP) is the chief over the camera and lighting crews working on a film, television production or other live action piece and is responsible for achieving artistic and technical decisions related to the image. The study and practice of this field is referred to as cinematography. Some filmmakers say that cinematographer is just the chief over the camera and lightning, and the Director of Photography is the chief over the all photography components of film, including: framing, costumes, makeup, lighting, and its the assistant of the post producer for color correction & grading. The cinematographer selects the film stock, lens, filters, etc., to realize the scene in accordance with the intentions of the director. Relations between the cinematographer and director vary; in some instances the director will allow the cinematographer complete independence; in others, the director allows little to none, even going so far as to specify exact camera placement and lens selection. Such a level of involvement is not common once the director and cinematographer have become comfortable with each other, the director will typically convey to the cinematographer what is wanted from a scene visually, and allow the cinematographer latitude in achieving that effect.

Several American cinematographers have become directors, including Barry Sonnenfeld, originally the Coen brothers’ DP; Jan de Bont, the cinematographer on films as Die Hard and Basic Instinct, directed Speed and Twister. Recently Wally Pfister, cinematographer on Christopher Nolan’s three Batman films made his directorial debut with Transcendence.

In the infancy of motion pictures, the cinematographer was usually also the director and the person physically handling the camera. As the art form and technology evolved, a separation between director and camera operator emerged. With the advent of artificial lighting and faster (more light sensitive) film stocks, in addition to technological advancements in optics, the technical aspects of cinematography necessitated a specialist in that area.

Film Director Explained

A film director is a person who directs the making of a film. Generally, a film director controls a film’s artistic and dramatic aspects, and visualizes the script while guiding the technical crew and actors in the fulfilment of that vision. The director has a key role in choosing the cast members, production design, and the creative aspects of filmmaking. In some European countries, the director is viewed as the author of the film. The film director gives direction to the cast and crew and create an overall vision through which a film eventually becomes realized. Directors need to be able to mediate differences in creative visions and stay in the boundaries of the film’s budget. There are many pathways to becoming a film director. Some film directors started as screenwriters, film editors or actors. Other film directors have attended a film school. Directors use different approaches. Some outline a general plotline and let the actors improvise dialogue, while others control every aspect, and demand that the actors and crew follow instructions precisely. Some directors also write their own screenplays or collaborate on screenplays with long-standing writing partners. Some directors edit or appear in their films, or compose the music score for their films.


Film directors create an overall vision through which a film eventually becomes realized. Realizing this vision includes overseeing the artistic and technical elements of film production, as well as directing the shooting timetable and meeting deadlines. This entails organizing the film crew in such a way as to achieve his or her vision of the film. This requires skills of group leadership, as well as the ability to maintain a singular focus even in the stressful, fast-paced environment of a film set. Moreover, it is necessary to have an artistic eye to frame shots and to give precise feedback to cast and crew, thus, excellent communication skills are a must.

Since the film director depends on the successful cooperation of many different creative individuals with possibly strongly contradicting artistic ideals and visions, he or she also needs to possess conflict resolution skills in order to mediate whenever necessary. Thus the director ensures that all individuals involved in the film production are working towards an identical vision for the compleated film. The set of varying challenges he or she has to tackle has been described as “a multi-dimensional jigsaw puzzle with egos and weather thrown in for good measure”. It adds to the pressure that the success of a film can influence when and how they will work again. Omnipresent are the boundaries of the budget of the film. Additionally, the director may also have to ensure an intended age rating. Theoretically, the sole superior of a director is the studio that is financing the film, however, a poor working relationship between a film director and an actor could possibly result in the director being replaced if the actor is a major film star. Even so, it is arguable that the director spends more time on a project than anyone else, considering that the director is one of the few positions that requires intimate involvement during every stage of film production. Thus, the position of film director is widely considered to be a highly stressful and demanding one. It has been said that “20-hour days are not unusual”.

Under European Union law, the film director is considered the “author” or one of the authors of a film, largely as a result of the influence of auteur theory. Auteur theory is a film criticism concept that holds that a film director’s film reflects the director’s personal creative vision as if they were the primary “auteur” (the French word for “author”). In spite of—and sometimes even because of—the production of the film as part of an industrial process, the auteur’s creative voice is distinct enough to shine through studio interference and the collective process.


  • Different directors can vary immensely amongst themselves, under various characteristics. Several examples are: Those who outline a general plotline and let the actors improvise dialogue. Notable examples include Ingmar Bergman, Christopher Guest, Wong Kar-wai, Spike Lee, Wim Wenders, Mike Leigh, Barry Levinson, Jean-Luc Godard, Miklós Jancsó, Gus Van Sant, Judd Apatow, Terrence Malick, Harmony Korine, Jay and Mark Duplass, and occasionally Robert Altman, Joe Swanberg, Sergio Leone and Federico Fellini.
  • Those who control every aspect, and demand that the actors and crew follow instructions precisely. Notable examples include David Lean, Akira Kurosawa, Steven Spielberg, Ridley Scott, Victor Fleming, Erich von Stroheim, James Cameron, George Lucas, Stanley Kubrick, Sidney Lumet, Andrew Bujalski, Christopher Nolan, David Fincher, Guillermo del Toro and Alfred Hitchcock.
  • Those who write their own screenplays. Notable examples include Woody Allen, Werner Herzog, Alejandro Jodorowsky, John Cassavetes, Ingmar Bergman, Stanley Kubrick, Quentin Tarantino, James Cameron, George Lucas, J. F. Lawton, David Cronenberg, Charlie Chaplin, Billy Wilder, Ed Wood, David Lynch, the Coen brothers, Francis Ford Coppola, Sofia Coppola, Pier Paolo Pasolini, Pedro Almodóvar, John Hughes, Nick Park, Edward Burns, Kevin Smith, Todd Field, Cameron Crowe, Terrence Malick, Oren Peli, Eli Roth, Harmony Korine, Paul Thomas Anderson, Guillermo del Toro, Rainer Werner Fassbinder, Oliver Stone, John Singleton, Spike Lee, Orson Welles, Akira Kurosawa, Hayao Miyazaki, M. Night Shyamalan,Daryush Shokof, Paul Haggis, Billy Bob Thornton, James Wong, Tyler Perry, Robert Rodriguez, Christopher Nolan, George A. Romero, Sergio Leone, Satyajit Ray, Joss Whedon and David O. Russell. Steven Spielberg and Sidney J. Furie have written screenplays for a small number of their films.
  • Those who collaborate on screenplays with long-standing writing partners. Notable examples include Alejandro González Iñárritu and Guillermo Arriaga, Elia Kazan and Tennessee Williams, Terry Gilliam and Charles McKeown/Tony Grisoni, Wes Anderson and Owen Wilson/Noah Baumbach, Edgar Wright and Simon Pegg, Martin Scorsese and Nicholas Pileggi/Paul Schrader/Jay Cocks, Yasujirō Ozu and Kôgo Noda, Peter Jackson and Fran Walsh, Alexander Payne and Jim Taylor, Robert Zemeckis and Bob Gale, Luis Buñuel and Jean-Claude Carrière/Luis Alcoriza, Krzysztof Kieślowski/Krzysztof Piesiewicz, Frank Capra/Robert Riskin, Michelangelo Antonioni/Tonino Guerra, Billy Wilder/I.A.L. Diamond, Sergio Leone and Sergio Donati, Guillermo del Toro and Matthew Robbins, and Christopher Nolan/Jonathan Nolan/David S. Goyer.
  • Those who edit their own films. Notable examples include Akira Kurosawa, Alfonso Cuarón, Mike Cahill, Jean-Marc Vallée, Steven Soderbergh, David Lean, Don Coscarelli, Charlie Chaplin, Robert Rodriguez, James Cameron, Ed Wood, Gaspar Noe, Takeshi Kitano, John Woo, Andy Warhol, Shinya Tsukamoto, Kenneth Anger, Gregg Araki, Gus Van Sant, Xavier Dolan, Ben Wheatley, Kelly Reichardt, Leni Riefenstahl, Kevin Smith, Rodrigo Cortes, Joe Swanberg, Steve James, Jafar Panahi, Ti West, Joel and Ethan Coen and many indie, Internet and arthouse filmmakers.
  • Those who shoot their own films. Notable examples include Nicolas Roeg, Mike Cahill, Peter Hyams, Steven Soderbergh, Joe Swanberg, Tony Kaye, Gaspar Noe, Gregg Araki, Robert Rodriguez, Don Coscarelli, Josef von Sternberg, Shinya Tsukamoto and Kenneth Anger. Those who appear in their films. Notable examples include Clint Eastwood, Orson Welles, Mel Gibson, Martin Scorsese, Peter Jackson, John Waters, John Carpenter, Spike Lee, Tyler Perry, Rainer Werner Fassbinder, Kevin Costner, Kenneth Anger, Woody Allen, Jon Favreau, Quentin Tarantino, Eli Roth, Michael Bay, Mel Brooks, Ben Stiller, Alejandro Jodorowsky, Charlie Chaplin, Terry Jones, Edward Burns, Pier Paolo Pasolini, Sam Raimi, Roman Polanski, Erich von Stroheim, Billy Bob Thornton, Sylvester Stallone, M. Night Shyamalan, Harold Ramis, Robert De Niro, John Woo, Kevin Smith, Warren Beatty, Takeshi Kitano, Kenneth Branagh and Ed Wood. Alfred Hitchcock, Abel Ferrara, Shawn Levy, Edgar Wright and Spike Jonze made cameo appearances in their films. Those who compose the music score for their films. Notable examples include Charlie Chaplin, Clint Eastwood, David Lynch, Alejandro Jodorowsky, John Carpenter, Mike Figgis, Alejandro Amenábar, Satyajit Ray, Robert Rodriguez and Tom Tykwer. Another way to categorize directors is by their membership in a “school” of filmmaking, such as the French New Wave, the British New Wave or the New Hollywood school of filmmakers.

Assistant Director

The role of an assistant director on a film includes tracking daily progress against the filming production schedule, arranging logistics, preparing daily call sheets, checking cast and crew, and maintaining order on the set. They also have to take care of the health and safety of the crew. Historically the role of an assistant to the director (not the same as an Assistant director) was a stepping stone to directing work; Alfred Hitchcock was an AD, as was James McTeigue. This transition into film directing is no longer common in feature films, but remains an avenue for television work, particularly in Australia and Britain. It is more common now for ADs to transition to production management and producer roles than to directing.

An “assistant director” can also take on many roles. Responsibilities of an assistant director in theatre may range from taking notes to actually staging parts of the play. Many aspiring theatre directors begin their careers assistant directing, although the responsibilities in theatre are usually completely different from the requirements of filmmaking and should not be confused.

Sub Roles

Often, the role of assistant director is broken down into the following sub-roles:

  • The First Assistant Director(First or 1st AD) has overall AD responsibilities and supervises the Second AD. The “first” is directly responsible to the director and “runs” the floor or set. The 1st AD and the unit production manager are two of the highest “below the line” technical roles in filmmaking (as opposed to creative or “above the line” roles) and so, in this strict sense, the role of 1AD is non-creative.
  • The Second Assistant Director(Second or 2AD) creates the daily call sheets from the production schedule, in cooperation with the production coordinator. The “second” also serves as the “backstage manager”, liaising with actors, putting cast through make-up and wardrobe, which relieves the “first” of these duties. Supervision of the second second assistant director, third assistant director, assistant director trainees, and the setting of background (extras) are parts of the “second’s” duties.
  • The Second Second Assistant Director(Second Second or 22AD) deals with the increased workload of a large or complicated production. For example, a production with a large number of cast may require the division of the aspects of backstage manager and the call sheet production work to two separate people.
  • The Third Assistant Director(Third or 3rd AD) works on set with the “First” and may liaise with the “Second” to move actors from base camp (the area containing the production, cast, and hair and makeup trailers), organize crowd scenes, and supervise one or more production assistants (PA). There is sometimes no clear distinction between a 2AD and a 3AD. Although some industry bodies (American DGA) have defined the roles in an objective way, others believe it to be a subjective distinction.
  • The Additional Assistant Director(AAD or Additional) or Fourth Assistant Director (4AD or “Fourth”) or “Key Production Assistant” (Key PA) may have a number of duties. Most commonly, the AAD has two broad job functions. One is the contraction of the duties of an AD where the AD acts as both 2nd AD and 3rd AD simultaneously. For example, a production with a large number of cast may pass the 2AD call sheet production work to that of the AAD, especially when the 2AD is already performing the additional work of a 3rd AD. The other main use of an AAD is as an adjunct to the 3AD and 1AD for logistically large scenes where more ADs are needed to control large numbers of extras. The “Additional” may also serve where the complexity of the scene or specialized elements within it (stunts, period work) require or are best served by a dedicated AD in most respects equal to a 1st AD – directing and controlling a number of other ADs to direct action to the satisfaction of the 1AD and the director.
  • A production assistant is one of the lowest crew in a film’s hierarchy in terms of salary and authority. They perform various duties required of them by ADs.
  • The sub-roles of assistant directors differ among nations. For example, the distinction between second second AD and third AD is more common in North America. British and Australian productions, rather than having a second second AD, will hire a “second” 2AD experienced in the same duties, and trained to the same level, to allow a division of the duties. 3ADs in Britain and Australia have different duties from a second second AD, and the terms are not synonymous. For example, A “third” may just be a crowd scene specialist, with seniority, and even higher pay than the second AD of that production.
  • Many times, in Hollywood film making, especially studio productions, the First AD is the first person hired on a film, often as soon as the project has been greenlit for production. An assistant director must be very good at estimating how long a scene will take. (Sometimes a scene running a few pages long on the screenplay can be shot relatively quickly, while a half-page emotional key moment may take all day.)

Freenom Technical Registration Error Solved 2020 (100% Working)

Freenom Technical Registration Error Solved (100%)

As we all know that we are facing a technical error in freenom when we try to register a new domain (free domain .tk, .ga .cf ) etc. I have researched on this topic and finally solved this.

First of all you have to go to Freenom.

After this, you have to go to Register A New Domain option. Under the Service tab.

Remember, here you have to type Complete Domain name which you are going to register.

Such as or or etc. Because if you just search shahzaibmajeed than the technical error will happen and this trick will not work properly.

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If you type the domain name then click on search. You will to another page saying domain is available or not.

After this click on checkout. When you Click on checkout you will reach to the Cart page of freenom where you will see your domain informations.

Here you have to select time for registering your domain. Select 12 months.

Selecting 12 Months

After that click on Continue.

As you click on Continue, you will reach a page, where freenom asks you about your details. Remember here you have not to select gmail or Facebook for sign in. Because if you select that, this trick will not work.

Now for this trick to work you have to make a temporary email. Go to Temp Mail where you will get a free temporary email address for you. Copy the temporary mail address and paste it to the place which is shown in the above picture.

After pasting the email address click on verify my email address. As you click this button you will receive an email in the inbox of your temporary email address. So Check back your temporary email address page and refresh it to see the new email in the inbox. You will see a verification email from freenom

Now it is simple, open that email, in this you have a link which is the verification link of your freenom account. Click on it and verify your account.

So when you click it. It will open in another page asking a detail about you.

Now, this is the main part where your trick can work or you can not register any domain. So here you have to work carefully.

Here although it is asking for your name and detail. But if you are facing technical detail so you have to put a detail from USA . For this, you have to visit Fake Name Generator Website. When you visit the website click on Generate so this website will generate a detail but which is not the detail of anyone.

Now it is easy, add all those information which are asked by freenom. Just Copy and Paste.

After COpying and Pasting each information you have to Agree the Terms of Freenom and click continue. You will reach to another page. But here you always have encountered that error, this time, you will see the option shown in picture below.

Click to the button shown in above picture to go in your Client Area. Then go to My Domain Option and see your domain is registered. 🙂

So, it is the most simplest way to register domain in freenom. Altough others are facing technical issues.

If you have any problem just contact me on admin@shahzaibmajeed or from the Contact page.

Comment below if this trick worked for you.

WordPress Blog Kis Thara Banate Hain (2020 Roman Urdu)

Roman Urdu

Kiya aap sahi tareeqe se blog shuru karna chahte hain? Hum jante hain ke aik blog shuru karna aik darawoni baat hai tab jab aap is baare main kuch jante na hon. Lekin Aap akele nain hain. Aaj main ne decide kia ke a tafseel wala guide un tamam logun k lie banaon jo blog banana nain jante. Aur a a tafseel wordpress blog k baare main hai.

Process Follow karna bohat e asaan hai chahe aap 20 saal k hain ya pir 60 saal k. Haan pir bhi agar aap ko koi madad chaiye tho mujh se rabta kar sakte hain.

WordPress Blog Shuru Karne Ke Lie Aap Ko Kiya Chaiye ?

Aap ko WordPress Blog Banane Ke lie 3 Cheezun Ki Zarorath hogi.

  • Aik Domain naam ka idea ( a aap ke Blog ka naam hoga jaise
  • Aik Web hosting account ( A wo jaga hai jahan aap ka website raheta hai internet main)
  • Aur 30 minutes k lie aap ki tawajo chaiye.

G haan, Aap ne bilkul durust parha. Aap bilkul shuru se aik Blog bana sakte hain wo bhi sirf 30 minutes main, Aur main aap ko a tamam process batata hon . step by step.

Is Tutorial main hum a topics cover karenge

  • Kis thara aik free Domain Name register karoge.
  • Kis Thara Best Hosting loge apne lie.
  • Kis thara WordPress ko install aur setup karoge.
  • Kis thara apna Blog Design Template change karoge.
  • Kis thara apna pahela Blog Post likhoge.
  • Kis Thara apne WordPress ko Plugins se Customize karoge.
  • Kis Thara Contact Form Add karoge.
  • Kis Thara Google Analytics Tracking Setup karoge.
  • Kis Thara apne Website ko SEO k lie Optimize karoge.
  • Kis Thara Apne Blog Se Paise Kamaoge
  • Aur Kuch Resources Jin se WordPress Seekh saken.

Tayar Hain? Chalen Shuru Karte Hain.


Step 1. Setup

Sub se barhi galati beginner a karte hain k wo apne lie Blogging Plateform Galath choose karte hain. Lekin Aap yahan hain, aap a mistake nain karenge.

95% Users k lie istamal karna behter hai, Yaani wo isey behter samajte hain. Isey Self Hosted WordPress kaha jata hai, Lekin wo Kiyun?

Kiyun Ke a free hai, Aap Plugins Install Kar Sakte hain, Apne Blog Desgin Ko Customize Kar Sakte hain. Aur sub se ayem baat a hai k aap apne Blog se Paise Kama Sakte hain bina kisi rukhawat k ( aur main Farq Mulahiza Farmayen).

WordPress Website Platform main bhi number one hai jis par tamam successful Blogs bane hain. Ager Dekha Jaye Internet main 34% Webiste WordPress Use Karte hain!.

Ab aap shayad soch rahe honge k WordPress Free q hai? Is Ki Kiya waja hai?

Is main koi aur baat nain, a free is lie hai k aap is main khud setup karte hain aur khud e hosting lete hain.

Aur zaban main kahun tho is ko chalane k lie aap ko khud e Domain Name aur Hosting leni parhegi.

Domain Name wo cheez hai jisey log type kar k aap k website tak pahunchte hain. A aap k Website ka address hai internet main. Jaise ya

Webhosting wo space hai jahan aap k website k file store hote hain. A internet main aap ke website ka gar hai. Har website k lie Hosting lazumi hai.

Aik Domain Name ki Salana Qeemat 1000 se 1500 tak hai aur Hosting mukhtalif hoting provider ke paas alag hai.

Jo bhi naye naye start kar rahe hain a un k lie bohat barhi Raqam hai.

Lekin Thankfully, Bluehost , Jo k officially WordPress ki recommended ki hui Host Provider hai, Jo users ko free domain name dene k lie raazi hai aur webhosting main bhi 60% off hai.

Bluehost Puraane internet main sub se puraane web hosting companiyun main se aik hai. Barhe Brand k naamun main bhi is ka barha naam hai jab baat aati hai WordPress ki q k sub se ziyada wordpress website yahi host kar rahe hain.

Is sub se parey, Bluehost 2005 se WordPress ke saath kaam kar rahi hai,

Chalen Agey Barhte hain, Aur a Dekhte hain k aap apna Domain aur hosting kis thara kareedenge.

Bluehost ko aik naye window main open karen.

Paheli cheez aap ko a karni hai k Get Started Now button pe click karni hai.

Agle Screen pe wo plan select karen jo aap lena chah rahe hain. (Basic aur plus in main bohat mashoor hain).

Us ke baad aap se Domain name enter karne k lie kaha jayega.

Aakir main aap ko apna account information add karna hai, aur package ko finalize karna hai. Main 36 maheene wala plan recommend karunga q k a bohat value rakhta hai.

Is screen main ap optional extras dekhenge jo aap kareed bhi sakte hain. A sub aap pe hai k aap a kareedte hain k nain. Lekin main abi inka kareedna recommend nain karunga. Aap a sub baad main bhi add kar sakte hain jab aap ko lagega k inki zaroorat hai.\


Jaise e aap complete karte hain tho aap ko aik complete detail email ayegi k kis thara aap apne control panel (Cpanel) main login kar sakte hain. A wo jaga hai jahan aap apne tamam support, email wagera manage karte hain. Lekin sub se ziyada zaroori a k aap yahan se WordPress bhi install karte hain.

Step 2. Install WordPress

Bluehost ne non techies k lie asani paida karne k lie a kiya hai k jaise aap apna account banate hain wo automatically ap k lie WordPress ko install karega.

Iska matlab a hai k aap ko apne Bluehost Account main login karna hai aur Login to WordPress pe click karna hai start karne k lie.

Aap apne WordPress pe Directly se bi ja kar login kar sakte hain apne browser main.

Agar Aap koi aur webhosting istamal kar rahe hain jaise SiteGround , HostGator, WP Engine wagera. Tho us k lie aleda aik Compherensive Guide Likhung K Kis thara step by step aap un providers main Blog banayenge.

Jaise e WordPress Setup hojata hai , aap apne Blog ko customize kar sakte hain aur Bloggin start kar sakte hain.

Step 3. Apna WordPress Theme Select Karna

Theme aap k WordPress Blog ka Visual Appearance control karta hai. Jab aap paheli baar apna blog visit karenge tho wo kuch is thara dikega.


A bohat se logun ko acha nain lagta.

Apne WordPress Blog Ko customize karna , usey aik behtreen desing dena , Blogging ki dunia main aap k lie bohat mufeed hoga aur zaroori bhi hai.

Hazarun ki tahdaad main Tayar themes pahele se e mojod hain jo aap apne website k lie use kar sakte hain. Un main se kuch free hain, aur baaqi paise pe milte hain yaani Paid hain.

Ap apna WordPress theme change kar sakte hain. Us k lie aap ko Sub se pahele apne Dashboard pe jana hoga aur pir

Appearance > Themes pe Click karna hoga.

Agey barhen aur Add New button pe click karen.

Agley screen pe aap k samne wo 7400+ Theme nazar ayenge jo k directory main mojod hain.

Ap sort kar sakte hain Popular, latest , feature aur isi thara feature filter bhi use kar sakte hain jaise industry, layout wagera.

 Ap apna mouse kisi bhi theme par le jasakte hain, pir aap ko aik preview button dikhaayi dega. Is pe click karne se aap ko theme ka preview dikaayi dega. Jis se aap website k design ko samaj jayenge k kaisa hoga.

Them ka preview exactly aisa nain dikega jis thara Screenshot main dikaayi de raha hai har theme ka view alag hoga. Ap ko color , Typography wagera check kar k them rakhna hoga apne pasand.

Sub se best tareeqa jo main samajta hon WordPress Theme select karne ka hai wo a hai k aap Theme main simplicity dekhen. Is se a hoga k ap k users ko aik saaf aur wazeh experience milega.

Jab aap ne wo theme select kar lia jo aap ko pasand ho, Simply apna mouse us par le jayen. aur a aap ko install button show karega. Is pe Click karen aur theme k install hone ka intezaar karen. Us ke baad, Install button Activate button main change hojayega. Ap ko is pe click kar k theme ko activate karna hai.

Jab aap ne apna theme install kar lia, Aap isey customize kar sakte hain Appreance menu k neeche di gayi Cusomize link pe.

Jab aap ne apna WordPress theme select kar lia, Tho ab aap apna pahela Post karne k lie tayar hain.

Step 4. Apna Pahela Blog Post Create Karna.

Blog post likhne k lie, click karen Posts>> Add New menu pe Jo WordPress Dashboard Pe Hai.

Ap aik editor area dekhenge jahan aap apna post likh ssakhte hain.

WordPress aik block-based editor istamal karta hai, jahan har element aik Block hota hai. A aap ko apne blog k lie bohat khoobsorat content layout banane main madad deta hai.

Editor ko mazeed janne k lie, agey barhen aur Publish button pe click karen apne blog ko public main available hone k lie. Jo k screen k top corner pe hai.

Post screen pe, aap kuch aur sections bhi dekhenge jaise Categories aur Tags. Ap in ka use kar k apne blog posts ko section main taqseem kar sakte hain.

Step 5. Plugins Aur Customization

Jab aap ne apna pahela sample blog post likh lia , Pir aap zahir hai aur mukhtalif cheezain apne website main add karna chahenge, jaise contact forms, galleries, sliders newsletter subscription form wagera.

In tmam additional features k lie aap ko plugins ka istamal karna parhega.

WordPress Plugins apps hain jo aap ko aap k website main naye feature add karne main madad deta hai. Bina kisi coding k .

Sirf WordPress k free directory main 55000 se ziyada Plugins mojod hain. Is ka matlab aap jo bhi karna chahen kar sakte hain. us k lie lazumi koi plugin mojod hai.

Chalen dekhte hain k kis thara plugins ka istamal kar k aap k blog main naye feature add kie jasakte hain.

WordPress main Kis Thara Contact Form Create karte hain

Har website ko aik contact form ki zaroorat hoti hai. A users ko allow karta hai k wo aap ko directly email kar saken. Jabke WordPress main khud a contact formm pahele se mojod nai hota. Ap ko is k lie WordPress Form Builder Plugin Chaiye hoga.

Main aap ko WPForms Lite plugin recommend karunga. a jo hai WPforms plugin ka free version hai.

3 million se ziyada website WPforms use karte hain!.

Ap Plugins>>Add New pe ja k search box main WPForms type kar k plugin install kar sakte hain. Pir, aap ko “install” pe click karna hoga aur pir Activate pe. Activation k baad aap ko aagey barhna hoga pir WPForms>> Add New page se apna pahela form create kar lenge.

Tho isi thara koi bh plugin install kar sakte hain. Baaqi tafseel pir kisi aur post main de denge.

Who is Storyboard Artist ?

A storyboard artist, or story artist, creates storyboards for advertising agencies and film productions. A storyboard artist visualizes stories and sketches frames of the story on paper. Quick pencil drawings and marker renderings are two of the most common traditional techniques, although nowadays Flash, Photoshop, and other storyboard applications are gradually taking over. The digital camera is one of the latest techniques in creating storyboards. A storyboard artist is also known as an illustrator visualizer.

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They are mostly freelance artists, typically hired by art directors and film directors. Deadlines are always tight, and overnight working is very common. Typically freelance storyboard artists will belong to one or more storyboard agencies much like an illustration agency. Some frequently used drawing applications are Corel Painter and Adobe Photoshop. Many storyboard artists nowadays begin and finish their work on computers using software and digital pencils like Wacom (Graphics tablet). Storyboard artists may use photos to create visuals where stock photos or photos taken specifically for the project are put together digitally to produce a photographic representation called a photovisual. For motion pictures, some filmmakers, directors, and producers choose to use computer programs designed to create storyboards such as StoryBoard Quick, StoryBoard Artist or FrameForge 3D Studio. 3D Programs such as Poser and DAZ Studio can also be used to create elements of the storyboards. However, a storyboard artist can sketch an idea quicker than images can be collected into a computer program.

Storyboard artists have different goals in different industries:

  • In advertising, the storyboard artist can be called upon to create a representation of what the finished TV commercial, or spot, will look like in order to persuade and engage the client to buy the concept being pitched. This can either be at the time the agency is trying to win the client’s business or once the client has signed on with the agency. In either case, the important element is for the storyboards to visualize for the client what the agency’s creative director or “creatives” are thinking will sell the client’s product. A storyboard artist may also be asked to visually represent several versions of a campaign for print ads. This gives a client a chance to choose between variations and allows them to be included in the creative process.
  • In film, a storyboard artist is hired at the beginning of a project. When a storyboard artist is hired by a motion picture company, the artist must break down the scenes of the script into shots which can be filmed. This is done under the supervision of the film’s director in order to ensure the director’s vision from the start of the project. Therefore, it can be helpful for the storyboard artist to know the mechanics of filmmaking when assisting the director. As the production proceeds, the storyboards are presented to the cinematographer who is then responsible for bringing that vision to the screen. Film production companies may also hire a storyboard artist to create polished presentation-style storyboards (which might also include sound) which can be used by an executive producer to raise the money to create the film.
  • In animation, projects are often pitched on the basis of storyboards alone (that is, a screenplay may not be written until later), and storyboard artists continue to work throughout the production to develop particular sequences. After a sequence is edited the director and/or storyboard artist and team may need to rework the sequence as it becomes evident that changes need to be made for timing and story.

I Am Ill

Hello Everyone!

Hope everybody is doing well. I am not good from some days. I have been suffering from kidney disease. I was in my university when i just felt fever. I directly went to the doctor to test my blood because at that time malaria was common disease in the University.

After testing my blood, the man from laboratory said, you have Malaria and you must take tablets for it. Then i asked the doctor what to do? e said buy these malarial tablets.

I was confirmed that i do not have malaria. But i knew that i am ill. I called my father and asked him that i will come to home. The reason behind going to home was just because Khuzdar is a city where you do not find a good doctor. My father was agreed for coming.

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One of my friends Gunj Bakhsh said a bus will leave for Gadani at 4 pm. He was so helpful but he was not aware of timing of the bus. We went to Bazaar at 4 pm but transporter said the bus will leave at 8 Pm.

Now we had 4 hours for the bus, so we visit Bazaar, took tea 3 times and at last one of our friend Shehbaz callled us that come in hotel some of his friends has came. Then we went to meet them. We met them and finally the time of bus was near so we left from the hotel and went to transport.

Gunj Baksh and his friends left me at bus stop, I sat in bus and it left for Gadani. I was ok in bus, and did not felt temperature or fever in the way of 5 hours.

When i reached home, in the second morning i and my father went to test my blood if i have malaria or not. We went and tested, the report was clear. We shown the report to Doctor who was a general surgeon (DR Umer Baloch). When he saw my reports he said your hemoglobin level is very low. I will give you some tablets, if it increases then good, if not then you have to transfuse blood. He gave me tablets for some days.

After taking these tablets, we again went to test if the HB now good or not. We shown the report to doctor, he said altough blood has increased in some points but it is too slow. You have to transfuse blood. But try to transfuse fresh blood. Then we were compel, we agreed to him.

Then we found donors for me, firstly we have sent our family members to check , if their blood group match to my blood group. None of the family members group matched except my brother Tahir Majeed.

On the next day we went for transfusion, although doctor had said to transfuse 3 Bottle of blood. The first was given by my brother.

At this time i was feeling good. And i did not thought that i am suffering from a dangerous disease. So, for next transfusion , many of my friends for blood group test but none of them has the same blood group. Then we asked to the blood bank if they can arrange? they said yes , next day they arranged a blood O+ for me.

It was the second transfusion, i had to do three transfusions. At this time i was eating fruits and taking tablets from the doctor Umer. I was feeling better and i thought now everything is okay.

Then after some days we went for 3rd transfusion. This blood was donated by a friend from Punjgoor. He said my blood is so thick so doctor said to transfuse every 3rd month. After this transfusion, I was feeling so good.

Then my friend (Brother) Ejaz said that it is my marriage and you have to come and take photos. I agreed to him that i will try if i will be Okay. After some days it was the Nikah of Ejaz Asad. I was feeling lazy but because i had promised to him so i went. I took photos of people, even though i was feeling so sick, my eyes were not seeing fully, but i did my work.

At same night when i went to my home, I felt that i have a danger headache. My eyesight was becoming more weak. Then i started vomiting . With passage of time i was feeling so bad, so i asked my father to take me to the doctor. But it was my bad luck that my doctor was not here for a week. I went to another doctor, he said you are ok, it is happening because of weakness, he gave me some tablets and said you will be ok. But at the same time i was vomiting.

When we came to home, now i was feeling so ill. Then after one or two vomiting i did not remember anything.

Will be continue….

Complete Guide For Beginner Filmmakers


Filmmaking (or in an academic context, film production) is the process of making a film. Filmmaking involves a number of discrete stages including an initial story, idea , or commission, through scriptwriting , casting, shooting, sound recording and reproduction, editing , and screening the finished product before audience that may result a film release exibition. Filmmaking takes place in many places around the world in a range of economic, social, and political contexts and using a variety of technologies and cinematic techniques. Typically, it involes a large number of people, and can take from a few months to several years to complete.


in this stage, the project producer selects a story, which may come from a book, play, another film, true story, video game, comic book, graphic novel , or an original idea, etc.

After identifying a theme or underlying message, the producer works with writers to prepare a synopsis. Next they produce a step outline, which breaks the story down into one-paragraph scenes that concentrate on dramatic structure. Then, they prepare a treatment, a 25 to 30 pages description of the story, its mood, and characters. This usually has little dialogue and stage direction, but often contain drawings that help visualize key points, another way is to produce a scriptment once synopsis is produced.

Next, a screenwriter writes a screenplay over a period of several months. The screenwriter may rewrite it several times to improve dramatization, clarity, structure, characters, dialogue, and overall style. However, producers often skip the previous steps and develop submitted screenplays which investors, studios, and other interested parties assess through a process called script coverage. A film distributor may be contacted at an early stage to assess the likely market and potential financial success of the film. Hollywood distributors adopt a hard-headed business approach and consider factors such as the film genre, the target audience, the historical success of similar films, the actors who might appear in the film, and potential directors. All these factors imply a certain appeal of the film to a possible audience. Not all films make a profit from the theatrical release alone, so film companies take DVD sales and worldwide distribution rights into account. The producer and screenwriter prepare a film pitch, or treatment, and present it to potential financiers. They will also pitch the film to actors and directors (especially so-called bankable stars) in order to “attach” them to the project (that is, obtain a binding promise to work on the film if financing is ever secured). Many projects fail to move beyond this stage and enter so-called development hell. If a pitch succeeds, a film receives a “green light”, meaning someone offers financial backing: typically a major film studio, film council, or independent investor. The parties involved negotiate a deal and sign contracts. Once all parties have met and the deal has been set, the film may proceed into the pre-production period. By this stage, the film should have a clearly defined marketing strategy and target audience. Development of animated films differs slightly in that it is the director who develops and pitches a story to an executive producer on the basis of rough storyboards, and it is rare for a full-length screenplay to already exist at that point in time. If the film is green-lighted for further development and pre-production, then a screenwriter is later brought in to prepare the screenplay.


In pre-production, every step of actually creating the film is carefully designed and planned. The production company is created and a production office established. The film is pre-visualized by the director, and may be storyboarded with the help of illustrators and concept artists. A production budget is drawn up to plan expenditures for the film. For major productions, insurance is procured to protect against accidents.

The producer hires a crew. The nature of the film, and the budget, determine the size and type of crew used during filmmaking. Many Hollywood blockbusters employ a cast and crew of hundreds, while a low-budget, independent film may be made by a skeleton crew of eight or nine (or fewer). These are typical crew positions:

  • Storyboard artist: creates visual images to help the director and production designer communicate their ideas to the production team.
  • Director: is primarily responsible for the storytelling, creative decisions and acting of the film.
  • Assistant director(AD): manages the shooting schedule and logistics of the production, among other tasks. There are several types of AD, each with different responsibilities.
  • Unit production manager: manages the production budget and production schedule. They also report, on behalf of the production office, to the studio executives or financiers of the film.
  • Location Manager: finds and manages film locations. Nearly all pictures feature segments that are shot in the controllable environment of a studio sound stage, outdoor sequences call for filming on location.
  • Production designer: creates the visual conception of the film, working with the art director.
  • Art director: manages the art department, which makes production sets.
  • Costume designer: creates the clothing for the characters in the film working closely with the actors, as well as other departments.
  • Make up and hair designer: works closely with the costume designer in addition to create a certain look for a character.
  • Casting director: finds actors to fill the parts in the script. This normally requires that actors audition.
  • Choreographer: creates and coordinates the movement and dance – typically for musicals. Some films also credit a fight choreographer.
  • Director of photography (DP): is the cinematographer who supervises the photography of the entire film.
  • Director of audiography (DA): is the audiographer who supervises the audiography of the entire film. For productions in the Western world this role is also known as either sound designer or supervising sound editor.
  • Production sound mixer: is the head of the sound department during the production stage of filmmaking. They record and mix the audio on set – dialogue, presence and sound effects in mono and ambience in stereo. They work with the boom operator, Director, DoA, DoP, and First AD.
  • Sound designer: creates the aural conception of the film, working with the supervising sound editor. On some productions the sound designer plays the role of a director of audiography. Composer: creates new music for the film. (usually not until post-production)


In production, the video production/film is created and shot. More crew will be recruited at this stage, such as the property master, script supervisor, assistant directors, stills photographer, picture editor, and sound editors. These are just the most common roles in filmmaking; the production office will be free to create any unique blend of roles to suit the various responsibilities possible during the production of a film.

A typical day’s shooting begins with the crew arriving on the set/location by their call time. Actors usually have their own separate call times. Since set construction, dressing and lighting can take many hours or even days, they are often set up in advance.

The grip, electric and production design crews are typically a step ahead of the camera and sound departments: for efficiency’s sake, while a scene is being filmed, they are already preparing the next one.

While the crew prepare their equipment, the actors are wardrobed in their costumes and attend the hair and make-up departments. The actors rehearse the script and blocking with the director, and the camera and sound crews rehearse with them and make final tweaks. Finally, the action is shot in as many takes as the director wishes. Most American productions follow a specific procedure:

The assistant director (AD) calls “picture is up!” to inform everyone that a take is about to be recorded, and then “quiet, everyone!” Once everyone is ready to shoot, the AD calls “roll sound” (if the take involves sound), and the production sound mixer will start their equipment, record a verbal slate of the take’s information, and announce “sound speed”, or just “speed” when they are ready. The AD follows with “roll camera”, answered by “speed!” by the camera operator once the camera is recording. The clapper, who is already in front of the camera with the clapperboard, calls “marker!” and slaps it shut. If the take involves extras or background action, the AD will cue them (“action background!”), and last is the director, telling the actors “action!”. The AD may echo “action” louder on large sets.

A take is over when the director calls “cut!”, and camera and sound stop recording. The script supervisor will note any continuity issues and the sound and camera teams log technical notes for the take on their respective report sheets. If the director decides additional takes are required, the whole process repeats. Once satisfied, the crew moves on to the next camera angle or “setup,” until the whole scene is “covered.” When shooting is finished for the scene, the assistant director declares a “wrap” or “moving on,” and the crew will “strike,” or dismantle, the set for that scene.

At the end of the day, the director approves the next day’s shooting schedule and a daily progress report is sent to the production office. This includes the report sheets from continuity, sound, and camera teams. Call sheets are distributed to the cast and crew to tell them when and where to turn up the next shooting day. Later on, the director, producer, other department heads, and, sometimes, the cast, may gather to watch that day or yesterday’s footage, called dailies, and review their work.

With workdays often lasting 14 or 18 hours in remote locations, film production tends to create a team spirit. When the entire film is in the can, or in the completion of the production phase, it is customary for the production office to arrange a wrap party, to thank all the cast and crew for their efforts.

For the production phase on live-action films, synchronizing work schedules of key cast and crew members is very important, since for many scenes, several cast members and most of the crew must be physically present at the same place at the same time (and bankable stars may need to rush from one project to another). Animated films have different workflow at the production phase, in that voice talent can record their takes in the recording studio at different times and may not see one another until the film’s premiere, while most physical live-action tasks are either unnecessary or are simulated by various types of animators.

Post Production:

Post-production is part of filmmaking, video production and photography process. It occurs in the making of motion pictures, television programs, radio programs, advertising, audio recordings, photography, and digital art. It is a term for all stages of production occurring after the actual end of shooting and/or recording the completed work. Traditional (analogue) post-production have been eroded away by video editing software that operates on a non-linear editing system (NLE).


Post-production is, in fact, many different processes grouped under one name. These typically include:

  • Video editing the picture of a television program using an edit decision list (EDL)
  • Writing, (re)recording, and editing the soundtrack.
  • Adding visual special effects – mainly computer-generated imagery (CGI) and digital copy from which release prints will be made (although this may be made obsolete by digital-cinema technologies).
  • Sound design, Sound effects, ADR, Foley and Music, culminating in a process known as sound re-recording or mixing with professional audio equipment.
  • Transfer of Color motion picture film to Video or DPX with a telecine and color grading (correction) in a color suite.

Typically, the post-production phase of creating a film takes longer than the actual shooting of the film, and can take several months to complete because it includes the complete editing, color correction and the addition of music and sound. The process of editing a movie is also seen as the second directing because through the post production it is possible to change the intention of the movie. Furthermore through the use of color correcting tools and the addition of music and sound, the atmosphere of the movie can be heavily influenced. For instance a blue-tinted movie is associated with a cold atmosphere and the choice of music and sound increases the effect of the shown scenes to the audience.

Post-production was named the one of the ‘Dying Industries’ by IBISWorld. The once exclusive service offered by high end post houses or boutique facilities have been eroded away by video editing software that operates on a non-linear editing system (NLE). As such, traditional (analogue) post-production services are being surpassed by digital, leading to sales of over $6 billion annually.


In television, the phases of post production include: editing, video editing, sound editing, animation and visual effects insertions, viewing and the start of the airing process. It is imperative that post production executes and oversees the preparation until the final product is completely ready.


Professional post-producers usually apply a certain range of image editing operations to the raw image format provided by a photographer or an image-bank. There is a range of proprietary and free and open-source software, running on a range of operating systems available to do this work. All computer hardware suitable for the post-production of photography features high amounts of RAM. The CPU (and GPU of the software supports GPGPU) depends on the operations to be performed.

The first stage of post-production usually requires loading the RAW images into the post-production software. If it’s more than one image, and they belong to a set, ideally post-producers try to equalize the images before loading them. After that, if necessary, the next step would be to cut the objects in the images with the Pen Tool for a perfect and clean cut. The next stage would be cleaning the image using tools such as the healing tool, clone tool and patch tool.

The next stages depend on what the client ordered. If it’s a photo-montage, the post-producers would usually start assembling the different images into the final document, and start to integrate the images with the background.

In advertising it usually requires assembling several images together in a photo-composition.

Types of work usually done:

  • Advertising that requires one background (as one or more images to assemble) and one or more models. (Usually the most time consuming as a lot of times these are image bank images which don’t have much quality, and they all have different light and color as they were not controlled by only one photographer in one set location)
  • Product-photography that usually requires several images of the same object with different lights, and assembled together, to control light and unwanted reflections, and/or to assemble parts that would be difficult to get in one shot, such as a beer glass for a beer advertising. (Sometimes to composite one image of a beer glass it requires 4 or 5 images: one for the base, one for the beer, one for the label, one for the foam, and one or more for splashing beer if that is desired)
  • Fashion photography that usually requires a really heavy post-production for editorial and/or advertising.


Techniques used in music post-production include comping (compiling the best portions of multiple takes into one superior take), timing and pitch correction (perhaps through beat quantization), and adding effects. This process is typically referred to as mixing and can also involve equalization and adjusting the levels of each individual track to provide an optimal sound experience. Contrary to the name, post-production may occur at any point during recording and production process and is non-linear and nonveridic .


A trailer or preview is an advertisement or a commercial for a feature film that will be exhibited in the future at a cinema. The term “trailer” comes from their having originally been shown at the end of a feature film screening That practice did not last long, because patrons tended to leave the theater after the films ended, but the name has stuck. Trailers are now shown before the film (or the A movie in a double feature) begins. Movie trailers have now become popular on DVDs and Blu-ray Discs, as well as on the Internet and mobile devices. Of some ten billion videos watched online annually, film trailers rank third, after news and user-created video.

Trailers consist of a series selected shots from the film being advertised. Since the purpose of the trailer is to attract an audience to the film, these excerpts are usually drawn from the most exciting, funny, or otherwise noteworthy parts of the film but in abbreviated form and usually without producing spoilers. For this purpose the scenes are not necessarily in the order in which they appear in the film. A trailer has to achieve that in less than 2 minutes and 30 seconds, the maximum length allowed by the MPAA. Each studio or distributor is allowed to exceed this time limit once a year, if they feel it is necessary for a particular film.

However, in January 2014, the movie theater trade group National Association of Theatre Owners issued an industry guideline asking that film distributors supply trailers that run no longer than 2 minutes, which is 30 second shorter than the prior norm. The guideline is suggested—and not compulsory. The guideline also allows for limited exceptions of a select few movies having longer trailers. Film distributors reacted coolly to the announcement. There had been no visible disputes on trailer running time prior to the guideline, which surprised many.

Some trailers use “special shoot” footage, which is material that has been created specifically for advertising purposes and does not appear in the actual film. The most notable film to use this technique was Terminator 2: Judgment Day, whose trailer featured an elaborate special effect scene of a T-800 Terminator being assembled in a factory that was never intended to be in the film itself. Dimension Films also shot extra scenes for their 2006 horror remake, Black Christmas – these scenes were used in promotional footage for the film, but are similarly absent from the theatrical release. A trailer for the 2002 blockbuster Spider-Man had an entire action sequence especially constructed that involved escaping bank robbers in a helicopter getting caught in a giant web between the World Trade Center’s two towers. However, after the September 11 attacks the studio pulled it from theaters.

One of the most famous “special shoot” trailers is that used for the 1960s thriller Psycho, which featured director Alfred Hitchcock giving viewers a guided tour of the Bates Motel, eventually arriving at the infamous shower. At this point, the soft-spoken Hitchcock suddenly throws the shower curtain back to reveal Vera Miles with a blood-curdling scream. As the trailer, in fact, was made after completion of the film when Janet Leigh was no longer available for filming, Hitchcock had Miles don a blonde wig for the fleeting sequence. Since the title, “Psycho”, instantly covers most of the screen, the switch went unnoticed by audiences for years until freeze-frame analysis clearly revealed that it was Vera Miles and not Janet Leigh in the shower during the trailer.

There are dozens of companies that specialize in the creation of film trailers in Los Angeles and New York. The trailer may be created at agencies (such as The Cimarron Group, MOJO, The Ant Farm, Ben Cain, Aspect Ratio, Flyer Entertainment, Trailer Park, Buddha Jones) while the film itself is being cut together at the studio. Since the edited film does not exist at this point, the trailer editors work from rushes or dailies. Thus, the trailer may contain footage that is not in the final movie, or the trailer editor and the film editor may use different takes of a particular shot. Another common technique is including music on the trailer which does not appear on the movie’s soundtrack. This is nearly always a requirement, as trailers and teasers are created long before the composer has even been hired for the film score—sometimes as much as a year ahead of the movie’s release date—while composers are usually the last creative people to work on the film. Some trailers that incorporate material not in the film are particularly coveted by collectors, especially trailers for classic films. For example, in a trailer for Casablanca the character Rick Blaine says, “OK, you asked for it!” before shooting Major Strasser; this line of dialogue is not spoken in the final film.